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Metal and composite bonding adhesives, surfacing and lightning strike films, and other bonding solutions.
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Axiom Materials provides superior film adhesive solutions that deliver consistency every time, along with an endless array of customization options. Whether your project requires a simple epoxy film adhesive or a complex, customized, high-temperature material, Axiom is your trusted partner. You can choose from Axiom’s standard product offerings or customize a highly specific product to meet your project needs. Axiom provides end-to-end client support and we pride ourselves on the opportunity to serve our clients. Our Team is passionate about the industry and committed to providing best-in-class-support that begins with our initial consultation.
Adhesives for High Temperatures and Harsh Environments
Axiom’s permanent structural bonds can withstand temperatures from -67°F to 700°F. Our materials are designed to stand up to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments. Even our low-temperature materials hold up against some of the roughest wear and tear. Our higher-temperature materials are ready to withstand combustion engines, high speeds, hot-burning fuels, and more. Furthermore, our adhesives can withstand these elements even when they are maximized by hot, humid, and otherwise harsh weather conditions.
Variety of Adhesive Choices and Customization Options
Film adhesives are far from one-size-fits-all. You need precision materials, and Axiom can provide that precision with our wide variety of choices. From low temperatures to high temperatures, industrial to aerospace grades, these choices are here to fit every need. Of course, even with plenty of choices available, you may still need something more specific. That is why we offer customization options for highly specialized projects.
Epoxy Film Adhesives
Axiom’s epoxy film adhesives are some of our most widely used products. These high-performance adhesive solutions are designed for applications that require a lot of toughness. They come in a range of choices and product applications, so you can choose the level of toughness, heat resistance, and durability that you need. Epoxy film adhesives are generally supported, but most also come in unsupported variations for those who need them. These adhesives have excellent shear and superior peel properties. They can stand up to the harshest elements, and they are used in several types of bonding.
Film Adhesives Features
In addition to the features listed above, the following are a few things that our clients can expect from our materials:
– Multiple types of bonding: We briefly mentioned a few of your bonding choices above, but our bonding type options include metal to metal, composite to metal, wood to composite, honeycomb sandwich bonding, polymer foam panel core bonding, ceramic bonding, and tile bonding.
– Processing: Axiom provides variable temperature cure products from 160°F to 350°F. Our adhesives can be used in press applications, autoclave processing, VBO OOA applications, and trapped molding applications.
– Cured bond lines: Our cured bond lines exhibit a combination of high strength and resistance to industrial fluids.
At Axiom Materials, we are committed to building adhesive solutions that are tough enough to stand up to harsh elements and high temperatures. Adhesive solutions are flexible enough to provide you with the exact option that you need. If you have any questions about our Film Adhesives product line – please let us know thru the contact form above. We are readily available to discuss your application, learn more about your needs, and address any questions.
|Product||Description||Applications||Form||Matrix color||Nominal cure temp,℉ (℃)||Max. Dry Operating Temp, ℉ (℃)||Comments|
|AX-2114||High Performance Toughened Epoxy Film Adhesive||High performance / high peel bonding applications for metallic and composite substrates||Adhesive film, supported||Off-white||250°F (121°C)||200°F (93°C)||Also available unsupported. Color variations available.|
|AX-2115||Enhanced Peel, High Performance Toughened Epoxy Film Adhesive||High performance / high peel bonding applications for metallic, composite, and thermoplastic substrates||Adhesive film, supported||Red||250°F (121°C)||200°F (93°C)||Also available unsupported. Color variations available.|
|AX-2116||Highest Performance Toughened Epoxy Film Adhesive||Aerospace grade bonding applications for metallic and composite substrates||Adhesive film, supported||Blue||250°F (121°C)||250°F (121°C)||Also available unsupported.|
|AX-2121||Variable Temp. Cure Epoxy |
|Low temperature curing / prototype development / snap curing||Adhesive film, supported||Cream||160°F (71°C)||250°F (121°C)||Various colors available. Also available unsupported.|
|AX-2130||High Temperature, Toughened Epoxy Film Adhesive||High temperature metal / metal or composite bonding, honeycomb bonding||Adhesive film, supported||Blue||325°F (163°C)||350°F (177°C)||Also available unsupported. Color variations available.|
|AX-2140||Epoxy Surfacing & Finishing Film Adhesive||Surface finishing of composite parts. Co-cure with prepreg to reduce pitting and smooth part surfaces. Eliminates fill, fair, and repair||Adhesive film, supported||Grey||250°F (121°C) or 350°F (177°C)||250°F (121°C)||Color variations available. May be consolidated with lightning strike materials. Low temperature cure available.|
|AX-2150||Modified Thermosetting Film Adhesive||Low weight / medium load bonding applications. Honeycomb peel strength improvement||Lightweight adhesive film, unsupported||Light Blue||250°F (121°C) or 350°F (177°C)||250°F (121°C)||Heavier weights and supported versions available.|
|AX-2151||PVB Phenolic Ballistic Film Adhesive||Bonding promotion and high energy load transfer between fabrics for ballistic applications||Adhesive film, unsupported||Green||250°F (121°C)||200°F (93°C)||Typically used in aramid ballistic laminates.|
|AX-2190||Foaming Epoxy Core Splice Adhesive||Core splicing and edge-bonding of honeycomb cores and paneling||Medium weight adhesive film, small sheets||Light Orange||250°F (121°C) or 350°F (177°C)||300°F (149°C)||Available in a variety of forms. Flame retardant versions are available.|
|AX-2700||Foaming Epoxy Core Sheet||Low density foaming core material for composite components||Low density sheets||Blue||250°F (121°C) or 350°F (177°C)||300°F (149°C)||Used widely in auto racing & sporting goods applications|
We specialize in custom solutions for our customers; working closely with you to develop the correct solutions for each project’s needs and specifications.
In addition to conventional resin systems, we provide cutting-edge custom resin formulations to meet your specific performance requirements.
For further information and to request a Product Technical Data Sheet (TDS) or Safety Data Sheet (SDS), contact [email protected]
News & events
Axiom’s Composite Materials Help Track & Field Athletes Win the Gold, Bronze & Silver Olympic Medals in Tokyo
Axiom recently identified that UCS Spirit’s vaulting poles, which leverage the highest quality of our composite materials, helped track and field athletes at the Tokyo ...
Sep 17, 2021
Axiom Materials Prepregs tackle Garmin Unbound Gravel 2021 presented by Craft in the Flint Hills of Kansas
Aug 04, 2021
Axiom Materials Introduces New Narrow Tow Prepregs Targeted at Electric, CNG and Hydrogen Powered Vehicles
Kordsa’s US subsidiary, Axiom Materials, is pleased to contribute to sustainable mobility with the introduction of its tow prepregs. Compared to traditional two-dimensional composite counterparts, these carbon fiber composite tow prepregs are ...
About Axiom Materials Inc.Axiom Materials, Inc. has manufactured materials for the world’s most complex applications for over a decade. As a global leader in composites — Axiom creates solutions such as: providing heat protection for rockets, making aircraft lighter weight, and industrial equipment more durable. Axiom’s advanced technology composite materials have become the industry standard in the composite market through R&D studies, new chemistry, and customer-driven applications.
About KordsaKordsa is the global player of tire, construction reinforcement, and composites technologies market. As the worldwide leader of the tire reinforcement technologies market, it carries out production through a vast area from USA to Asia Pacific and supplies its reinforcement technologies to the whole world. With its business processes all based on R&D and innovation, Kordsa has 892 patent applications worldwide. Please visit our site for Corporate Identity Elements.
Jul 08, 2021
Axiom Materials, one of Kordsa’s US-based subsidiaries, has announced the launch of its latest novel product line of Oxide-Oxide CMC surfacing films under the trade name of CerFace. The first product of the line is CerFace™ AX-8810, a ...
Axiom Materials, one of Kordsa’s US-based subsidiaries, has announced the launch of its latest novel product line of Oxide-Oxide CMC surfacing films under the trade name of CerFace. The first product of the line is CerFace™ AX-8810, a surfacing film designed to improve the outer finish of ultra-high temperature CMC components to reduce manufacturing costs and improve part lifecycle.Axiom Materials Inc., one of Kordsa’s, a global player in the tire, construction reinforcement, and composites technologies market, US-based subsidiaries, announced the launch of its latest Oxide-Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite product line: CerFace™ surfacing films. Axiom, the only worldwide qualified manufacturer of Oxide-Oxide ceramic matrix prepregs on an industrial scale, has also introduced its first CerFace™ product, AX-8810, which is uniquely engineered to co-cure with Axiom’s Ox-Ox prepregs to reduce surface porosity and to improve surface finish. The product protects exposed fibers and minimizes surface roughness of CMC components for operating temperatures of up to 1093⁰C. Application of the film in a single-step process eliminates the need for traditional coatings and secondary processes for significant cost reduction. Axiom Materials had filed for an international patent for the CerFace™ surfacing films in 2019. The CerFace™ AX-8810 film is non-toxic and environmentally benign. The Oxide matrix is applied to an Oxide carrier using advanced solution coating techniques to maximize product performance. CerFace™ AX- 8810 is currently being offered in rolls of 61 cm width, and 23 m length. Wider widths will be available in the future. Raj Dhawan, Senior Vice President of Business Development at Axiom, is the inventor and patent holder of the product. Regarding the product, Mr. Dhawan commented, “CerFace™ AX8810 is a flagship product for Axiom’s CMC product line and its new High-Temperature Composite Center in Santa Ana, California. High surface porosity and roughness of Ox-Ox CMC, that is typical of Ox-Ox components, can be detrimental in applications where airflow, drag, and friction are a factor in overall efficiency of the component. Our CerFace™ AX-8810 can be co-cured and sintered with the Ox-Ox prepregs to produce CMC components of superior surface quality without the costly steps of secondary coatings and processing. CMC components with the surfacing film result in superior performance and life cycle. I’m proud to say that the product has received wide and enthusiastic acceptance by our aerospace and industrial customers based on their evaluation and manufacturing trials.” CerFace™ is used in high-temperature components for industrial and aerospace markets. Typical industrial applications may include combustors, shrouds, gas filters for power generation and furnace hardware, and typical aerospace applications may include lightweight aero-engine components such as the mixer, center body and cone sections; hot sections of the aircraft structures near the engine, and radomes. Application of CerFace™ also enhances the precision of machining and drilling of the CMC component. The Company plans to introduce additional CerFace™ films for modifying the surface properties of Ox-Ox CMC components in the future. About Kordsa Kordsa is the global player of tire, construction reinforcement, and composites technologies market. As the worldwide leader of the tire reinforcement technologies market, it carries out production through a vast area from the USA to the Asia Pacific and supplies its reinforcement technologies to the whole world. With its business processes all based on R&D and innovation, Kordsa has 868 patent applications worldwide. Please visit Kordsa for the Corporate Identity Elements About Axiom Materials Inc. Axiom Materials, Inc. has manufactured materials for the world's most complex applications for over a decade. As a global leader in advanced composite materials, Axiom creates solutions such as providing heat protection for rockets, making aircraft lighter, and industrial equipment more durable. Axiom’s advanced technology composite materials have become the industry standard in the composite market through R&D studies, new chemistry, and customer-driven applications. Axiom Materials Inc. was acquired by reinforcement leader Kordsa in 2019. Please visit Axiom’s website to find out more.
Feb 01, 2021
January 20, 2021 - Axiom Materials Inc., a global leader in composites materials is pleased to announce it has received the Carbon Neutrality Certification for calendar year 2019, demonstrating its commitment to corporate social responsibilities and ...
Jan 20, 2021
JOHN LINCOLN, BARRETT JACKSON, AMY BARNES, AARON BEABER, LARRY VISSER
Axiom Materials, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705; [email protected]
Composites Horizons, Covina, CA 92697-7075
3M Company, Advanced Materials Division, St. Paul, MN ...
JOHN LINCOLN, BARRETT JACKSON, AMY BARNES, AARON BEABER, LARRY VISSER
Axiom Materials, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705; [email protected] Composites Horizons, Covina, CA 92697-7075 3M Company, Advanced Materials Division, St. Paul, MN 55144
ABSTRACTOxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites are gaining increasing attention as a mainstream material option for high temperature components in the aerospace and advanced energy sectors. As the material moves from bench to production, cost reductions are required to ensure that the solutions are market-competitive with titanium and other high temperature alloys. In parallel, a more comprehensive portfolio of fabric geometries and data are desirable to enable flexibility in both engineering and design. 3M, maker of Nextel™ ceramic fibers, joins CMC prepreg developer and manufacturer, Axiom Materials, Inc., and CMC parts designer and fabricator, Composites Horizons, in developing data for the present work. The team jointly compares the properties of Oxide-Oxide CMCs fabricated from conventional Nextel fabric architectures with those of new, lower cost fabric designs.
INTRODUCTIONOxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites (OxOx CMCs) now have significant application momentum in oxidation-sensitive component applications. Yet both the transition to OxOx CMC, as well as the engineering of new OxOx CMC hardware, has been gradual as a result of its high cost relative to conventional materials or as an element of any new component design. The global market for OxOx CMC components is positioned for near-term growth and on the cusp of mainstream adoption provided that reasonable cost profiles can be achieved. Particularly in the case of the aerospace sector, cost reduction initiatives have become especially high-priority as the OxOx CMC cost / value proposition crosses that of machined titanium components for turbine engine and other high temperature hardware. The present work seeks to provide engineering solutions for cost-conscious OxOx CMC design through (a) the development of lower cost fiber and fabric architectures, and (b) characterization of their physical and mechanical properties. Indeed, there is precedent in using higher denier fibers and fabrics to achieve reduced costs. Similar trends have been observed for carbon fiber composites, which has progressed from 1k and 3k fibers initially, to upward beyond 50k fibers to reduce the cost of finished components.1 Like carbon components, costs associated with the manufacturing process for OxOx CMC components are weighted heavily toward the cost of the fiber and/or fabric. Insofar as these costs can be reduced, component level costs can likewise be reduced. To date, most OxOx CMC technical property data and research has been based on the use of NextelTM 610 and 720 fibers,2-7 and most notably styles DF-11 and EF-11 (1500 denier). The 1500 denier yarns are the finest produced commercially and are the most expensive fibers from a manufacturing standpoint due to small fiber bundle size and high demand placed on fiber manufacturing lines. 3M has demonstrated that higher denier yarns may be made by increasing the number of filaments in the tow bundle and keeping the individual filament diameters similar, 8 which results in a significant cost advantage in fiber production. As the cost savings available from higher deniers of the Nextel fibers are of primary interest, relative costs of various fiber deniers are presented in Figure 2. The fiber types used in the present study for both grades Nextel 610 and 720 are 1500, 3000, 4500 and 10,000 denier. [caption id="attachment_1969" align="aligncenter" width="841"] Figure 1: Current (6/2016) relative price per pound for structural ceramic fibers at various deniers (3M)[/caption] Figure 1 expresses the 1500 denier fibers as 100%, and each higher denier is reported as a lower percentage of the 1500 denier price. The comparative pricing shows that fiber costs can be significantly reduced in transitioning to higher denier fiber tows. Further, it is worth noting that changes at the fiber level also have the potential to impact cost other points in the supply chain. Figure 2 expresses the typical flow of large-volume OxOx CMC supply chain from fiber manufacturing to finished component. [caption id="attachment_1968" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 2: Typical OxOx CMC supply chain from fiber to component[/caption] Weaving costs, for example, can be reduced through the use of higher denier yarn configurations, simpler weaving patterning & setup, or reduced total yardages in the case of heavier fabric architectures. Prepregging costs can likewise be reduced with heavier fabrics (lower overall yardage), as would part fabrication costs (reduced layup & yardage). Therefore, from a holistic supply chain standpoint, additional cost savings are expected through the use of modified fibers and fabrics. In preparation for the present study, a variety of woven fabrics were designed from various deniers of both 3M™ Nextel™ 610 and 720 fiber. Nextel 610 is >99% alpha alumina, which is the higher strength fiber, and 720 is an 85% alpha alumina and 15% silica, which as fired is a mix of alpha alumina and mullite, making it the more refractory fiber.8 A presentation of mechanical properties of base fiber tows at various deniers is of value in order to interpret the greater implication of their use in the fabrics. Table 1 expresses the fibers used in the present study, alongside their reported breaking strengths. Typical single filament and strand strengths are listed from historical process data. [caption id="attachment_1978" align="aligncenter" width="715"] Table 1: – Single Strand and Tow Break Loads[/caption] By keeping the nominal diameter of each filament the same, the breaking load of the filament is independent of denier from 1500-10,000 denier. However, with the number of filaments increasing in each tow, measuring the strength of each tow becomes more problematic. Test method ASTM 2256 is followed where pneumatic grips are used to clamp the tow. With 1500 and 3000 denier a typical brittle ceramic break can be observed. As the filament count increases beyond 3000 denier, the test curves indicate that not all the filaments are breaking at the same time. Because of the strand break load testing characteristics as shown in the table above, fiber properties is based on the single filament break loads, crystal size, and crystal phase. A comparison of the single filament test results shows that the fundamental fiber quality is comparable for low and high denier. As single filament breaking strength is relatively unaffected by higher denier yarn production, higher denier tows are in turn expected to be usable in the woven fabrics of OxOx CMCs to achieve similar performance to lower denier tows. Since much of the early research activity started from 1500 denier fabric (DF-11 and EF-11), new fabric architectures were largely based around the approximate fiber volume and thickness of DF-11 and EF-11, with some exceptions to explore boundaries. Nascent near-property offsets to DF-11 and EF-11 include DF-11-10,14,17 & EF-11-13,14,16,17, which were prepared from 3,000 and 4,500 denier yarns. In addition to offsets for the 1500 denier fabric, other fabrics in the test matrix explore an increased amount of fiber in each direction of the weave, in turn helping to determine the effect on composite properties using thicker and/or fewer plies. Lastly, for 3M™ Nextel™ 720 a unidirectional-type fabric (EF-20) was prepared, where the bulk of the fiber is 10,000 denier in the warp direction. For EF-20, 1500 denier is used at a much lower pick count in the fill direction to give the fabric enough stability to be handled and prepregged. Table 2 presents a summary of the properties of the uncoated ceramic fabrics used in the present study. Photos of select fabrics, presented in Figure 3, show the visual differences observed when changing deniers and pick counts (tows/in). Fabric EF-11 (identical to DF-11 in construction) is the fabric to which others should be compared. In the 3000 denier and DF-24-8-10,000 fabrics, the expectation is the tows will spread after the sizing is burned away to make a more uniform fabric without open spaces between tows. Fabrics have balanced 4 to 8 harness satin (HS) weaves except for EF-20, which is the semi-unidirectional (UD) fabric. [caption id="attachment_1977" align="aligncenter" width="1187"] Table 2: 3M™ Nextel™ 610 and 720 fabrics evaluated[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1967" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 3: Images of select woven Nextel sized fabrics[/caption] With consideration toward the cost benefits of increased fiber denier, and on supply chain savings through modified fabric architectures, this study explores the effects of higher denier fibers and fabric architectures on the resultant composite properties.
EXPERIMENTALFabrics of Nextel 610 and Nextel 720 described in Table 2 were woven and heat cleaned. Fabrics were coated to a known matrix content with proprietary ceramic slurries formulated and blended at Axiom Materials, Inc. and Composites Horizons using laboratory-based coating techniques. For Nextel 610 fabrics, an aluminum-silicate slurry was used. For Nextel 720 fabrics, an alumina slurry was used. Matrix absorption and fabric handling characteristics were observed and recorded. Prepregged fabrics were laid up at Composites Horizons into multi-ply 0°/90° laminates with a target thickness of 0.100-0.130 inches (2.5-3.3 mm). EF-20 was laid up into a 0° laminate because of its unidirectional weave pattern. Automated coating behavior for DF-11, DF-19, EF-11, EF-19, and EF-20 were independently explored using a single pass solution prepreg treater at Axiom Materials, Inc. Laboratory-coated laminates were processed via autoclave cure and sintered at Composites Horizons. Physical properties were evaluated including fiber volume, matrix volume, porosity, density, and per-ply thickness. Laminates were cut into specimens for testing of flexural properties per ASTM C1341, interlaminar shear properties per ASTM D2344 and tension properties per ASTM C1275. In order to evaluate the thermal effects, tension properties of Nextel 610 composites were tested after aging at 900°C, 1050°C, and 1150°C (each at 10hr, 100hr, and 500hr exposures), and tension properties of Nextel 720 composites were tested after aging at 1100°C, 1200°C, and 1275°C (each at 10hr, 100hr, and 200hr). Mechanical tests were conducted at 3M, Axiom Materials Inc., and Exova laboratories. Round robin testing was also conducted to assess laboratory biases for interlaminar shear and tension.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONUpon initial weaving, sized fabrics of heavier deniers appeared to have more fiber gapping than weave patterns of 1500 denier. However, it was observed that the heat cleaning (desizing) operation had a significant impact on relaxing the fabric tows and spreading them out into a more even plane with greater coverage. This was an important discovery because the presence of rounder, unspread tow bundles of higher denier have the potential to impact the properties of the resultant composite due to inconsistent microstructure and/or increased thicknesses. This is similarly observed in comparing heat-cleaned thicknesses with sized thicknesses in Table 2. The extent to which the heavier denier and weave pattern fabrics accept ceramic matrix impregnation was also evaluated. It was observed that all fabrics identified in Table 2 were readily impregnable in the laboratory with relative ease. Further, automated prepregging operations using ceramic slurries were conducted on DF-19 (3,000 denier 3M™ Nextel™ 610), and EF-19 (3,000 denier Nextel 720), and EF-20 (10,000 denier Nextel 720), all of which demonstrated good impregnation performance and handling through the treating equipment, and little difficulty in roll winding or packaging. The expectation is that fabrics having as high as 20,000 denier could be prepregged using automated methods with relative ease. Evaluating prepreg drape characteristics is likewise central in determining if modified fabric architectures are suitable for largescale production. Base assessment of prepreg drape characteristics indicated that all fabrics of 3,000 denier or lower were not of concern during layup for radii of 1" (25mm) or greater, including fabric styles DF-19 and EF-19. DF-19-16-4500 exhibited fiber resistance and breaking and is suggested for components with gentler radii. Lastly, it was determined that 10,000 denier semi-unidirectional fabric EF-20 was able to be contoured in the 90° direction (perpendicular to dominant fibers) for tubular structures of appx. 1" (25mm) or greater. Composite laminate properties are presented in Tables 3 and 4. The characterization of laminate properties provides insight into finished composite laminate quality and microstructure, as well as standard properties such as density, ply count, and dimension. [caption id="attachment_1976" align="aligncenter" width="854"] Table 3: Physical properties for Nextel 610 laminates in the present study[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1975" align="aligncenter" width="829"] Table 4: Physical properties for 3M™ Nextel™ 720 laminates in the present study[/caption] To the degree that properties are outside of general expectations, physical properties can also indicate the presence of any improperly prepared or processed laminates. No unusual characteristics were observed for any of the fiber deniers or fabric geometries evaluated. Even at relatively thicker fabrics and higher fiber deniers, similarity was observed in porosity content, matrix content, and density. Volumetric properties were within normal ranges of experimental and measurement variance error. [caption id="attachment_1966" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 4: Per ply thicknesses of prepreg laminates from various Nextel 610 and 720 fabrics[/caption] Per ply thicknesses (PPT), of value from a design perspective, are plotted in Figure 4. Comparisons may been be drawn between heat-cleaned fabric thickness (refer to Table 2), and postprocessed, composite PPTs. The data indicates that a reduction in PPT between heat-cleaned fabrics and finished part component readings can be expected, although variation in the change is significant and deemed to be largely geometry-dependent, and affected by the behavior of both (a) the fibers laying down during composite processing, and (b) the flow and behavior of the matrix around the fiber. The composite thicknesses are useful to the part designer in determining the number of plies of a particular fabric style to use in costing and/or engineering OxOx CMC components. Composite thicknesses also provide framework for establishing cost per unit thickness of components using various prepregs. In order to provide some understanding of composite microstructure, SEM images were taken of various composite laminates in the present study, and are presented in Figures 5-8. [caption id="attachment_1965" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 5: SEM Images of EF-11 OxOx CMC (1,500 Denier)[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1964" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 6: SEM Images of DF-11 OxOx CMC (1,500 Denier)[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1963" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 7: SEM Images of DF-11-10-4500 OxOx CMC (4,500 Denier)[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1962" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 8: SEM Images of DF-24-8-10k OxOx CMC (10,000 Denier)[/caption] The images are polished cross sections that show both the matrix and the fibers. What is obvious is the shape of the fiber changing from round to more of an oval to dog bone shape as the denier increases. This is the result of a drying phenomenon that occurs when the fibers are spun during initial manufacturing. As is shown in Table 1, the single filament strength is not affected by the shape change of the fibers at higher deniers. Nextel 610 OxOx CMC Results: Ambient-temperature mechanical property data collected on OxOx CMC produced from various Nextel 610 fabrics are presented in Figures 9 and 10. [caption id="attachment_1961" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 9: Tensile and flexural properties for Nextel 610™ composite laminates[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1960" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 10: Interlaminar shear properties for 3M™ Nextel™ 610 composite laminates[/caption] Both tensile data and flexural data indicate a mild downward trend with increasing fabric thickness and/or denier. What is significant about both tensile and flexural properties is that they suffer less degradation for higher denier and/or thicker weaves than was the expectation at the onset of this research. Properties remained relatively constant, despite drastic changes in filament geometry and fabric architecture. Interlaminar shear properties appears generally unaffected in Nextel 610 OxOx CMC laminates of heavier architecture, although there is some scatter in the data. The assumption for interlaminar shear properties was that an increase in the variation in composite microstructure would track with an increase in fiber denier, and in turn a decline in properties, but this was not observed. Thermal aging data and high-temperature test data are presented for Nextel 610 OxOx CMC in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The impact of thermal aging on tension strength after various aging times and temperatures is in alignment with historical data for Nextel 610 fiber performance, which suggest a decline in fiber mechanical performance whose occurrence begins at approximately 900-1000°C.9 Tensile data at various temperatures is also in alignment with fiber performance expectation, where a decline in strength can be expected to correspond directly to temperature.9 Notably, data trends are tight and relatively independent of fiber denier or weave pattern. [caption id="attachment_1959" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 11: Tensile strengths of 3M™ Nextel™ 610 OxOx CMC laminates as processed (AP), 10/100/500 hrs at 900°C, 10/100/500 hrs at 1050°C, and 10/100/500 hrs at 1150°C[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1958" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 12: Tensile properties of Nextel 610 OxOx CMC laminates as processed (21°C), at 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1150°C[/caption] Nextel 720 OxOx CMC Results: Ambient-temperature mechanical property data collected on OxOx CMC produced from various Nextel 720 fabrics are presented in Figures 13 and 14. Tension and flexural data indicate a stable trend with increasing fabric thickness and/or denier for balanced-weave fabric composites. EF-20, a unidirectional fabric of unbalanced weave, should not be considered in assessing trends. Similar to Nextel 610 composites, Nextel 720 OxOx CMCs do not appear to have significant mechanical property reduction for increased thicknesses or deniers. [caption id="attachment_1957" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 13: Tensile and flexural properties for 3M™ Nextel™ 720 composite laminates[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1956" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 14: Interlaminar shear properties for Nextel 720 TM composite laminates[/caption] Nextel 720 OxOx CMC interlaminar shear properties followed a similar flat trend to Nextel 610 in properties, although slightly upward with weight / fiber denier in this case. In drawing a relative comparison to the industry-standard EF-11 fabric, results presented for tension, flexural, and interlaminar shear properties are similar to those of heavier denier and courser weave fabrics. In the case of EF-20 semi-unidirectional fabric, the results for tensile & flexural modulus and interlaminar shear properties are in alignment with the general expectation of increased values in the 0° direction relative to same-thickness laminates of balanced weave. Tensile and flexural strength properties did not meet the expectation of an increase in strength for the additional fiber aligned with test direction. The impact of thermal aging on tension and interlaminar shear properties is presented for Nextel 720 OxOx CMC laminates after various aging times and temperatures in Figures 15 and 16. Results for tension are in alignment with expectations for fiber strength performance, which is reported to decline at or around 1100-1200°C.9 Interlaminar shear data at various temperature aging suggests long-term property reduction onset at approximately 1250°C. Data trends are for both properties are relatively independent of fiber denier or weave pattern. [caption id="attachment_1955" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 15: Tensile properties of 3M™ Nextel™ 720 OxOx CMC laminates as processed (AP), 10/100/500 hrs at 1100°C, 10/100/500 hrs at 1200°C, and 10/100/200 hrs at 1275°C[/caption] [caption id="attachment_1954" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 16: Interlaminar shear properties of Nextel 720 OxOx CMC laminates as processed (AP), 10/100/500 hrs at 1100°C, 10/100/500 hrs at 1200°C, and 10/100/200 hrs at 1275°C[/caption] Interlaboratory Testing: Round robin testing was conducted between various laboratories to identify any expectations of bias for tensile and interlaminar shear data. Data are presented in Figure 17. [caption id="attachment_1953" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Figure 17: Interlaboratory test data for tensile strength and interlaminar shear strength[/caption] Site-to-site comparability for tensile strength was reasonable, while there was significant scatter for interlaminar shear data. Based on the variation in shear data recorded for this study, it is recommended that the data presented for shear are used for comparative purposes rather than engineering or design purposes.
CONCLUSIONFiber and fabric architectures enabling significant component-level cost reductions for OxOx CMC have been presented. While primary cost savings are achieved at the fiber level, secondary benefits may also be realized at other points in the OxOx CMC supply chain in transitioning to the heavier fabric designs. OxOx CMC prepregs of higher-denier fabrics have been produced, evaluated, and converted into composites for mechanical characterization. Prepregs layups may be completed on tight contours using up to 3,000 denier. Gentler geometries are advised for parts intended to be produced with 4,500 denier or above. Data and observations indicate that the transition to heavier denier yarns and architectures have relatively minimal effect on mechanical properties or on thermal stability of OxOx CMCs. Future research should be directed toward product standardization and design-quality data development for higher-denier fabrics to enable more flexibility in engineering design. It is recommended that part contours and layup characteristics are carefully considered in selecting the lowest cost fabric suitable for the application.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors acknowledge technical contributions from Jonathan Kemling, Moses Omafuaire, Adam Schendel, Mike Davidson, Giovanny Guanche, and Michelle Smith. This research was funded jointly by 3M, Axiom Materials, Inc., and Composites Horizons.
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